Shanties, Trains and Tulips

There’s so much more than meets the eye…

CHANGE

In 2005 I moved to Manhattan Island; this was a personal goal I set for myself when I was very young. The journey was long, but well worth the wait. Curious about my new neighborhood I would take my dog and explore. Once we felt comfortable with the 5 block radius around our home, we would venture further out. Many times these trips would include a visit to Central Park. To get there, we would cross Park Avenue. Over time, Park Avenue would become familiar and the seasonal changes would go unnoticed. But every spring as the tulips blossomed, we would take notice again and admire their resplendence. This year was no exception.

CUPS OF COLOR

Park Avenue is truly a site to behold. “The Park Avenue malls are a series of container gardens in the center of one of the most well-known and well-traveled Avenues in the world. Each mall is only 2-3 feet deep.” 1 As the freezing winters melt into the temperate days of spring, the tulip takes center stage. It is hard to miss the beauty of these plants.

The tulips are planted where the streets cross Park Avenue. Each bed holds up to 1000 bulbs. “Some 70,000 bulbs create a flowered carpet more than a mile long, from East 54th to East 86th Street.” 2

Grid to show the Mall Tulip planting.

As the bulbs begin to grow, rows of green pointy leaves rise to the surface.  A few weeks and the shoots become full plants where flower buds open to magnificent cups of color. These cups overflow with sunshine that pours out onto the Avenue. Each day as the sun rises and sets, the flowers march along following its path. Observing 1000 tulips rotating their blossoms through the course of each day is a spectacle worth noticing. The scientific term for this is Heliotropic.  “By following the path of the sun, heliotropic plants are able to absorb as much light as possible in a limited amount of time in colder climates.” 3

One day back in 2008, while crossing Park Avenue I had one of those eye-opening moments that inspired me to photograph these beautiful flowers. Taking a chance not knowing what the end result would be, I shot 2 rolls of high speed film in hopes that the combination of film and time of day would capture the luminance of the flower petals.

Who is responsible for planting these beautiful flowers I wondered now 7 years later? The New York Times interview of 2013 reveals the answer. “Peter Van de Wetering, the son of a Dutch gardener, in 1959 was chosen by the city to landscape the center malls along a broad swath of Park Avenue, a job that would in many respects define his life.” 4  About halfway through the article, a quote stopped me in my tracks. “ ‘The first tiny green shoots arrive as early as the end of March, quicker than they might otherwise,’ Mr. Van de Wetering explained, ‘because they’re sitting on Railroad tracks, so the ground is warmer and they come faster.’ ” 5** 6

And that one line has taken me from reveling in the beauty of these tulips to appreciating the transformation of Park Avenue. So if you are game, come explore with me and discover how this now beautiful boulevard was once quite different.

SOUNDS IN THE NIGHT

Have you ever heard a familiar sound and not been able to identify its origin? Logic and reason were playing out a scenario just like this one a night not long ago. I was walking in an area not far from Park Avenue and heard a train whistle. The closest train yard is in Sunnyside Queens 7 at least 5 miles away. It was after 11:00pm on a crisp clear night, a night where sound would travel great distances and so I made my assumptions. After reading Mr. Van de Wetering’s quote in the Times article, I’m not so sure the conclusion was correct.

THE COMMISSIONERS’ PLAN

Before 1811 the focus of New York City was below Canal Street. Infrastructure and expansion, commerce and trade all happened in this area. “Land north of Canal Street was ‘waste and vacant’, especially the parcel that was bounded by 23rd & 90th Streets between 2nd & 7th Avenues. The Dongan Charter granted this area to the city in 1686 as common lands.  However, the city used this land more as a private estate and leased the land thru the 18th century.” 8

After the revolutionary war (1775 to 1783), the city began to rebuild and would sell off this “granted land” to pay off debt. The populace was huddled below Canal Street, and things were getting too congested. City officials had the foresight to determine that a plan was needed to prevent random builds and urban sprawl as construction expanded north.

They came together and proposed that three Commissioners (Gouverneur Morris-“New York Senator, joint founder of both the New-York Historical Society and the Erie Canal Commission” 9, Simeon DeWitt-Surveyor General of New York State and John Rutherford-a large land owner in New Jersey) develop the plan. April 3, 1807, marked the beginning of this planning process; they had four years to finalize it as they needed time to survey, take elevations and so on. They hired John Randel, Jr., the Secretary and Surveyor General. 10

These three men met their goal twelve days shy of the four year mark: The Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 (known as the New York City Grid) was submitted on March 22, 1811. To execute this plan it would involve Eminent Domain which of course was not taken well by the current land owners. Steps would include:

– Reorganizing property lines, mobilizing government to open, grade and pave streets.
– Carving land into real estate parcels (rectangular plots).
– Fostering a system of walkable streets and great social spaces. 11

Tabula Rasa Planning or working with a “blank slate” the city began to lay-out the grid. Rolling hills and woodlands, babbling brooks and farmlands, beautiful estates and shanty-towns would be altered forever to allow for progress. Surveying of this vast area took from 1811 to 1820; a detailed atlas was completed in 1820. It would take about 60 years to build up to 155th Street.

©Peter Baab ca. 1882.  "View from roof of George Ehret's home on PA and 94th Street" Courtesy Museum of the City of New York MNY54768
©Peter Baab ca. 1882. “View from roof of George Ehret’s home on PA and 94th Street” Courtesy Museum of the City of New York MNY54768

Final Grid measurements go like this:

• Each block of the grid is 200′ street to street. Avenues range from 610’-920’.
• Lots can be divided by 20′ and 25′.
• Fourth (Park) Avenue to Sixth Avenue is 920’ wide.
• Third Avenue to Fourth (Park) Avenue is 920’ wide.
• Second Avenue to Third Avenue is 620’ wide.
• First Avenue to Second Avenue is 650’ wide.
• Avenue A to First Avenue is 640’ wide.
• All west side blocks are 800’ wide. 12

In 1853 as the grid development moved uptown, Central Park would take precedence. The park would be delineated by 59th & 106th Streets between 5th & 8th Avenues. In 1863 the park would be extended to 110th street, where its total measured/s 843 acres. “Creating the park, however, required displacing roughly 1,600 poor residents, including Irish pig farmers and German gardeners, who lived in shanties on the site.” 13

MAKING TRACKS

About this same time, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing. Products manufactured in one part of the country needed to get to users in another. And people were looking to travel beyond where they lived.

DeWitt Clinton served as a politician in New York for over 30 years and was at the forefront of these changes. He was a New York State Senator, a United States Senator, the Mayor of New York City (1803 to 1815) and finally Governor of New York State (1817 to 1828). “During his tenure, Governor Clinton was the brains and political force behind the Erie Canal linking Manhattan’s Hudson River waterfront with the Great Lakes to confirm New York as being American’s predominant port for years to come.” 14

“The canal was completed in 1825 running from Tonawanda (west) to Waterford (east) connecting Lake Erie with the Hudson River, 338 miles long.” 15 The canal was functional but slow and road travel by stage coach continued but was inefficient. To compete with the canal, in April of 1831 the Original Railroad Charter was granted. “In the late 1800s as the Railroad was competing for the same cargos the use of the canal diminished.” 16

The first steam powered locomotive operating in New York State was named “The DeWitt Clinton” in honor of the Governor. Cast in the West Point Foundry in Cold Springs, 90,000 pounds and 13 feet long, it was the 3rd or 4th steam locomotive to be built in the United States and the first locomotive to operate (with great fanfare) in the United States. John B. Jervis commissioned the DeWitt Clinton for his newly chartered Mohawk & Hudson Railroad. This was the first leg of what was to become the New York Central Line 20 years later. August 9, 1831, its maiden run was along 16 miles of track between Albany & Schenectady. It took 40 minutes. 17

The first New York City rail began operating also in 1831. It allowed for a double track from 23rd street and as far north as the Harlem River. “At this time in the city’s history, 23rd street was still too remote from where people lived, so legislators granted an extension to go further south to Prince Street.” 18 The train tracks were cut through wilderness, but a straight line made sense for its placement. This line was drawn up Fourth Avenue for the New York and Harlem Railroad, that in “1983 would become the Metro North Commuter Rail”. 19

Map courtesy ©Apple, Inc; Data from TomTom and others; Annotated by Teresa Kruszewski, photographer.
Map courtesy ©Apple, Inc; Data from TomTom and others; Annotated by Teresa Kruszewski, photographer.

February 25, 1832, first ground was broken near Murray Hill (32nd Street) for the New York & Harlem Line. The swift construction enabled the first section to open on November 22, 1832, between Prince Street and Union Square. Cars were pulled by horse upon the rails. In 1834 rock was cut through in Murray Hill and the line was extended to 85th Street. Between accidents and pollution, steam engines were first banned below 14th street and then later below 42nd. “Trains arriving from the North unhitched their engines at 42nd and towed passenger cars the last few miles downtown by horse.” 20 These horse cars would “operate until 1917.” 21 In 1833 the Railroad purchased 6 parcels of land at 26th Street and Fourth Avenue for a car barn and horse stables.

Grading this straight line posed substantial challenges out of which came great accomplishments. Here is a recap of the topography at the time:

The ground was mostly level from 40th-60th Streets.
Then a hill from 60th-73rd Streets; there had to be a cut into it.
73rd-79th Streets a deep valley needed to be filled, so an embankment was built.
79th-92nd Streets another hill had to be cut in to.
‘A brick/masonry tube between 94th & 96th Streets under Mount Prospect was cut.’ 22
The tunnel was one of the greatest feats of its day. 596’ in length.
[This is the oldest tunnel in New York City and is still used today by Metro North. 23]
Out of the tunnel to 104th Street. At this point trestles and wooden bridges struggled across the Harlem Flats.
Then the track ran on an embankment at 119th Street (Snake Hill).
Then one more deep cut emerging at 124th Street. 24

Tracks above ground, Park Avenue at 107th Street, April 29, 2015 ©teresa kruszewski, photographer
Tracks above ground, Park Avenue at 107th Street, April 29, 2015 ©teresa kruszewski, photographer

In less than 7 years, tracks covered almost the full length of Manhattan Island. The labor it took to make this a reality was extraordinary. “By the fall of 1837, The New York & Harlem Railroad operated a horsecar line from its depot at the corner of Bowery and Walker to the Harlem station at 125th Street. In 1852 the Harlem Line would be 131 miles from New York City Hall to Chatham; there was only 22 miles remaining to complete the run to Albany. The following year, the state legislature authorized the 10 New York Railroads to consolidate into one: The New York Central.” 25

The Railroad was bringing change and opportunities for travelers and business owners. Inns, restaurants and shops were springing up along the various stops throughout the line as New Yorkers could now travel by train, carriage and horse. Out of the rise of this new transportation was a need for additional cars. “John Stevenson responded to this new demand and built a factory in Harlem”. 26

HEADING NORTH

Before the Railroad and The Grid of 1811, the Fourth Avenue section of the city was part of the Common Lands deemed “waste and vacant”. Folks had migrated north from “the City” and were confronted with Forrest. They cleared land for pastures to raise goats and pigs, and set up shanties to live.

As the laying of tracks progressed uptown, Fourth Avenue became dirty, sooty, loud and populated. The tracks early on were above ground and created a multitude of problems for those nearby. “The hopes were that property values would soar and fine shops would soon set up would be delayed for quite some time. The parallel Avenues were being settled and property values were strong”. 27

Instead, “Small farms, truck gardens, unsightly wastelands and sordid settlements of squatters would settle this land”. 28 Factories sprung up. They made cheap musical instruments to lease for people “down town”. The largest and most important establishment was the piano works of the Steinway’s. [Steinway Factory on Fourth Avenue between Fifty-Second and Fifty-Third Streets, New York City, 1861] 29

The Park Avenue population was estimated to “exceed 5000 in the mid to late 1800’s”. 30 The largest percentage of this population would be squatters. These folks were resourceful in the way they made money. They would pick up piles of ash from the steam locomotives and sift out the unused coal to re-sell. As goat and pig farmers, they would sell their products to the rich that lived in the surrounding neighborhoods of 5th Avenue and Central Park. “Goat milk at the time was in great demand”. 31

As travel from the city improved, this “blight” became more and more apparent. These unsightly “colonies of squalor and misery continued to occupy Fourth Avenue until 1880” 32. Many were forced out by new land owners and the construction that ensued. Curiously, many of these “squatter hovels existed until well after 1925, when they were finally swept away to make room for towering apartment buildings”. 33

“Jacob Riis photojournalist and social reformer depicted these outliers”. 34 He would spend time with them, photographing the environment in which they lived to help change the social conditions that faced New York City.  35

 

SOMETHING GRAND

One cannot discuss the design of Park Avenue without mentioning Cornelius Vanderbilt. In fact, one could go as far to say he is the reason Fourth Avenue transformed into Park Avenue.

Cornelius was a shrewd business man. Various writings state he was only motivated by money. “Cornelius Vanderbilt, known as the ‘Commodore’ began his business on the river, but soon turned to steam on the Railroad. By 1863 he was president of the Harlem Railroad. In 1865 Vanderbilt owned the Harlem, Hudson and Central Lines.” 36

Vanderbilt wanted a central location for all of his train lines to converge. He purchased 48 acres “with his own wealth” 37 on what is now East 42nd Street and built the first Grand Central Depot. In 1871 it opened for business. Most of the land around this site was vacant or occupied by shanties, but he believed this depot would be the catalyst for other businesses to open their doors.

The building was right in the middle of Fourth Avenue. To pass from 42nd Street to 45th Street, a road on either side of the depot was created. “Vanderbilt Avenue would be on the West and Depew Place (named for Chauncey Mitchell Depew, Attorney for Vanderbilt, President of the New York Central Railroad and United States Senator for New York) would be on the East.” 38

The southern side of the Depot along East 42nd Street was 249′ wide; it extended north six blocks to 48th Street. This northern section would be an unsightly train yard for the steam locomotives. Its area would span three avenues, from Madison to Lexington. South of 42nd Street where the cars were horse drawn, passengers would travel through the tunnel under what is now Park Avenue between 33rd and 41st Streets and arrive at Grand Central. This new Depot would replace the station at 26th Street.

Where the train tracks extended north up Fourth Avenue, the grading was very rough and made it difficult to build and navigate; pedestrians found it unsafe to cross. “Trains would hit cows grazing at 58th Street. The pollution and noise lead to complaints. People yelled ‘sink your tracks!’ ” 39 The Fourth Avenue Improvement Committee was set up to deal with unsafe crossings and to lobby for sinking of the tracks.

©C.C. Langill 1894.  "Central Railroad on Park Avenue" Courtesy Museum of the City of New York MNY28649
©C.C. Langill 1894. “Central Railroad on Park Avenue” Courtesy Museum of the City of New York MNY28649

The great transformation of Fourth Avenue began in 1872 when Vanderbilt and the city partnered. “Splitting the cost of sinking the tracks was the first government and private industry collaboration for the city.” 40 Vanderbilt would widen his right of way to accommodate 4 tracks during this process. To connect the divided Avenue, the railroad dug a tunnel from 49th Street to 97th Street. The sunken tracks would run a distance of more than 3 miles and would be completed in 1876. “The Avenue would transform from a smokey train yard and perilous tracks to the most beautiful of boulevards.” 41 And as early as 1888, this section of Fourth Avenue would be renamed Park Avenue.

The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad lowered the tracks into a tunnel from 59th Street to 96th Street during 1872 to 1876, concurrent with the construction of Grand Central Depot. However, as train traffic to Grand Central increased dramatically to the end of the 19th century, the operation of steam locomotives in the tunnel resulted in both an extremely unpleasant experience for riders and a dangerously low level of visibility for train engineers. 42

To accommodate the influx, “The Grand Central Depot would be enlarged for a second time in 1900”. 43

Up until this point, steam powered locomotives were banned south of 42nd Street. “A train crash in the tunnel below Park Avenue during 1902, caused the city to ban steam engines below the Harlem River effective 1908.” 44

Photo Courtesy: The Railroad Enthusiasts of New York at The Williamson Library, Park Avenue Tunnel Crush, 1902
Photo Courtesy: The Railroad Enthusiasts of New York
at The Williamson Library, Park Avenue Tunnel Crush, 1902

By the turn of the twentieth century, hundreds of steam locomotives arrived at Grand Central Station daily, at a rate of one every 45 seconds. The Park Avenue tunnel, built to remove trains from Manhattan’s surface and boost public safety, was itself dangerous: dark, smoky, with poor visibility. On January 8, 1902, an express train from White Plains missed signals and plowed into the back of a commuter train that was backed up at the tunnel. Fifteen people were killed instantly and dozens more were bloodied and burned. It was the worst train accident in New York City history. 45

It’s hard to imagine these conditions in this day and age. With progress there are always challenges; this was as true then as it is today.

December 22, 1902, William J. Wilgus, The Central’s Chief Engineer sends a letter to then President W. H. Newman. He proposed razing the current Grand Central Depot so as to replace the steam engines with electric. This proposal included extending electric beyond the city limits. This proposal also discussed the use of Air Rights so that the Railroad could pay for itself. At this time in history, the Railroad made more money hauling freight then it did passengers. These air rights and electric trains would change that. Commuters were becoming more and more the growing traffic for train service. 46

“In 1903 Grand Central Depot became Grand Central Terminal. Passengers would no longer be horse ferried below 42nd Street. Not to disrupt the current station activity, the new terminal would be constructed in ‘longitudinal bites’ “. 47

On Feb. 2, 1913, the doors to Grand Central Terminal officially opened to the public, after 10 years of construction and at a cost of more than $2 billion in today’s dollars. The terminal was a product of local politics, bold architecture, brutal flexing of corporate muscle and visionary engineering. 48 In 1967 it was designated a New York City Landmark. 49

With all of the changes underground, a profound change was happening above ground. The real estate north of 42nd Street would change from pasture and shanties to luxury living on a desirable residential street.

Trains running below through grate, Park Avenue at 59th Street, April 30, 2015. 
Trains heading into the Park Avenue tunnel at 97th Street, April 29, 2015. 
©teresa kruszewski, photographer

The one issue left to resolve before residential building could begin, was to eliminate the noise and vibration from the tracks below. Extraordinary engineering methods were developed to insulate the tracks as well as the footings of the buildings above. Here is how the transmission of vibrations was resolved:

To insulate the steel, columns are covered with vibration mats which are alternate layers of lead and asbestos which support each column at its base. Layers of cork are also used. Building columns are protected by providing “air spaces” between steel and walls which surround them. The buildings are built on stilts. You may feel the passing of a train as you walk along the side walk. 50

Construction began quickly thereafter. It’s interesting to see over the centuries how the architecture has changed along Park Avenue. “By 1937 Park Avenue would be glamorized all the way to 96th Street.” 51

-In the years preceding 1890, the buildings were not more than 4 stories high.
-Between 1890 and 1910, the buildings were between 7 and 9 stories high.
-1910 and forward, continuous rows of palatial apartment houses were built. 52
-In the year 2015, the tallest building in New York City at 1,396’ is built on Park Avenue. 53

And down the middle of this beautiful Avenue are wide center medians planted with “seasonal highlights such as Tulips, blooming Hawthorn and Cherry Trees and colorful Begonias.” 54 These strips of green that replaced the tracks of long ago are a testament to determination, progress, and commitment. These change agents of the 1800s were visionaries that took a stance to improve conditions for the long term.

RICHES OF DELIGHT

To confirm the train whistle I heard on that night not long ago could in fact come from below the street, I spoke with a doorman.  His building sits on the corner of Park Avenue and 79th street. He has worked there for more than 22 years and stated that after 11:00pm you can hear the whistle sounds as the trains pass underground. He also mentioned that when in the basement of his building, you could hear the rumbling on the tracks all day long.

Grand Central Terminal is open daily from 5:30 AM until 2:00 AM. When the last commuter train pulls into the station for the night, the maintenance trains head out. These tracks never sleep, and in the quiet hours of the overnight standing on the sidewalks of Park Avenue, you can clearly hear the activity below.

As I conclude my findings from that simple query about a tulip, I recognize a richness that runs much deeper than the buildings that line the street. And have discovered a neighborhood with great passion and dedication, that maintains this distinctive expanse of green we know as Park Avenue.

Faded tulips, Park Avenue at 79th Street, May 27, 2015 ©teresa kruszewski, photographer
Faded tulips, Park Avenue at 79th Street, May 27, 2015 ©teresa kruszewski, photographer

At the end of each tulip season, people are “invited to dig up the tulips to replant in their own yards” 55 “The weekend after the final brilliant petal has fallen, in a quaint tradition beloved in the neighborhood, residents are allowed to dig up the bulbs. Many take them to their homes in the Hamptons for transplanting to summer houses by the sea.” 56

In this city where buildings out-number trees, this stretch of landscaped beauty brings delight (and a little mystery) to all.

Until next time.
Teresa
-adventure is life, live it®

 

 

Notes:

  1. http://fundforparkavenue.org/fund-for-park-avenue-mpp.htm
  2. New York Times Article:  “A Gardener’s Stage: Park Avenue” By Constance rosenblum April 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/realestate/a-gardener-whose-field-is-park-avenue.html?_r=1
  3. SFGate-by by Renee Miller, Demand Media, http://homeguides.sfgate.com/tulips-heliotropic-photonastic-98246.html
  4. New York Times Article:  “A Gardener’s Stage: Park Avenue” By Constance Rosenblum April 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/realestate/a-gardener-whose-field-is-park-avenue.html?_r=1
  5. New York Times Article:  “A Gardener’s Stage: Park Avenue” By Constance Rosenblum April 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/realestate/a-gardener-whose-field-is-park-avenue.html?_r=1
  6. **May 28, 2014 Mr. Peter Van de Wetering passed away.  “ Son Anton, 45, who is the vice president of his father’s business and lives near his parents, has taken over much of the actual physical labor”. New York Times Article:  “A Gardener’s Stage: Park Avenue” By Constance Rosenblum April 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/realestate/a-gardener-whose-field-is-park-avenue.html?_r=1
  7. http://ny.curbed.com/archives/2015/02/19/inside_sunnyside_yards_new_york_citys_next_megaproject.php
  8. The Greatest Grid : The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011 / Edited by Hilary Ballon.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2012.
  9. http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/gouverneur-morris
  10. The Greatest Grid : The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011 / Edited by Hilary Ballon.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2012.
  11. The Greatest Grid : The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011 / Edited by Hilary Ballon.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2012.
  12. The Greatest Grid : The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011 / Edited by Hilary Ballon.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2012.
  13. http://www.centralpark.com/guide/history.html
  14. New York Times:  “Hints of Come Back for Nations First Super Highway”  Little Falls, NY  11/02/08  Author:  Christopher Maag  http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/nyregion/03erie.html?_r=0
  15. New York Times:  “Hints of Come Back for Nations First Super Highway”  Little Falls, NY  11/02/08  Author:  Christopher Maag http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/nyregion/03erie.html?_r=0
  16. New York Times:  “Hints of Come Back for Nations First Super Highway”  Little Falls, NY  11/02/08  Author:  Christopher Maag http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/nyregion/03erie.html?_r=0
  17. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  18. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  19. http://web.mta.info/mnr/html/mnrHistory1.html
  20. http://www.gcthistory.com/#s1
  21. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  22. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  23. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  24. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  25. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  26. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  27. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  28. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  29. http://www.immigrantentrepreneurship.org/image.php?rec=865
  30. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  31. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  32. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  33. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  34. The Greatest Grid : The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011 / Edited by Hilary Ballon.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2012.
  35. http://collections.mcny.org/Collection/Shanty%20town.-2F3XC5U9AHXP.html
  36. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  37. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  38. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  39. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  40. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  41. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  42. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Park_Avenue_Tunnel_(railroad)
  43. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  44. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  45. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/grandcentral-parkave/
  46. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  47. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  48. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/20/nyregion/the-birth-of-grand-central-terminal-100-years-later.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
  49. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  50. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  51. Grand Central/Author Sam Roberts First Editing Jan 2013. Publisher GC Publishing, Hachette Book Group, 237 Park Avenue 10017, HachetteBookGroup.com
  52. Romance of Park Avenue 1930, Park Avenue Association, Inc 342 Madison Avenue, Author F. A. Collins
  53. http://fortune.com/2014/11/24/432-park-avenue-inequality-wealth/
  54. http://fundforparkavenue.org/fund-for-park-avenue-mpp.htm
  55. http://fundforparkavenue.org/fund-for-park-avenue-mpp.htm
  56. New York Times Article:  “A Gardener’s Stage: Park Avenue” By Constance rosenblum April 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/realestate/a-gardener-whose-field-is-park-avenue.html?_r=1

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